This study shows that even small modifications of hull frames can yield a measurable reduction in propulsion power. The study was conducted by combining a parametrised local free-form deformation of hull frames together with a generalised Lackenby approach, designed to maintain the displacement and LCB.

Stern frame modifications are parametrised with three different parameters. The tested combinations of parameters are determined using a design of experiments method. The optimal stern hull shape is then selected (Variant 6 in the image below) showing a reduction in propulsion power of 1.6%. Variations in displacement and LCB were maintained below 0.1%

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